Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia who had stood from 1293 until around the year 1500 AD It reached the top of the triumph of the kingdom during the reign of Hayam Wuruk who ruled from 1350 until 1389. Majapahit control of other kingdoms in the peninsula, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, Malaya and the Philippines. Kingdom of Majapahit adl last Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms who master the Malay Peninsula and is considered as one of the largest state in Indonesia’s history. The power lies in Sumatra Malay Peninsula to Indonesia east Borneo although still disputed territory.
History of the Majapahit Kingdom
There is little physical evidence remains of Majapahit and history major who jelas.Sumber not be used by historians adl Pararaton – The Book of Kings in the Kawi language and Java language Nagarakertagama Kuno.Pararaton especially telling Ken Arok (founder Singhasari) but also includes several short sections on the form of Majapahit. Meanwhile Nagarakertagama who is an old Javanese poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk. After that time it happened was not jelas.Selain that there are some inscriptions in the ancient Javanese language and historical records from China and other countries.
The accuracy of all the Java-language manuscript is disputed. There is no denying that the resources they contain elements and non-historical myth. Some scholars like C.C. Berg considers all manuscripts are not the records of the past but have meaning in terms of the supernatural can know the future. However, most scholars who assume that the outline of these sources can be accepted krn in line with China’s historical record of the special list of rulers and the state of the royal who appears to be quite certain.
Establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit history
After Singhasari expel Sriwijaya from Java as a whole in the year 1290 Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This is a concern ruler Kublai Khan‘s Yuan Dynasty in China. He sent messengers who named Meng Chi to Singhasari who demanded tribute. Kertanagara ruler Singashari last but refused to pay tribute and to embarrass the messenger with damage to the face and cut off his ear. Kublai Khan was angry and then dispatch a large expedition to Java in 1293. When it Jayakatwang duke was killed Kertanagara Kediri. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja Jayakatwang give clemency to Raden Wijaya Kertanegara-law who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given the woods Pull. He opened the forest and built a new village. The village was named Majapahit who was taken from the fruit of a magazine and think “bitterness” of the fruit. When the troops arrived Wijaya allied with Mongolian Mongolian troops to fight against Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya ally turns against the Mongols, so forcing them to pull back troops home in a chaotic krn they are in foreign territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to be able to go home or they should be forced to wait another six months on the island stranger.
The exact date of birth date who is used as the Majapahit empire, Raden Wijaya adl day coronation as king is on November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom was facing problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa including Ranggalawe Sora and Nambi rebelled against even though the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana suspect that mahapati Halayudha who is conspiring to impose all of the king so that he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last rebel (Kuti) Halayudha arrested and imprisoned and then sentenced mati.Wijaya died in 1309.
Wijaya’s son and heir who Jayanegara adl lord of evil and immoral. Gemet who he dubbed Kala means “weak villain”. In the year 1328 was murdered by a physician Jayanegara Tanca. Stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni Rajapatni should replace but chose to withdraw from the palace and become a woman pastor. Rajapatni pointed Wijayatunggadewi Tribhuwana daughter to become queen of Majapahit. During the reign of the Majapahit kingdom Tribhuwana LBH developed into a large and well known in the area. Tribhuwana master Majapahit to maternal deaths in 1350. He was succeeded by son Hayam Wuruk.
Glory of Majapahit Kingdom
Hayam Wuruk also called Rajasanagara ruled Majapahit in 1350 until 1389. During the Majapahit reached top mahapati triumph with the help of Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada University (1313-1364) Majapahit LBH mastered many areas. In the year 1377 a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit attack Palembang causing the sea to the remnants of collapsed Sriwijaya. Majapahit other famous generals adl headliner Adityawarman krn conquest in Minangkabau.
According Nagarakertagama stanza XIII-XV Majapahit kingdom in the area include the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku, Papua, Nusa Tenggara islands and some Philippine islands. However, the natural and economic constraints showed that the areas of power seems not to be under centralized power of Majapahit, but connected to one another by trading that may be a monopoly by the king . Majapahit also has a relationship with Burma Siam Campa southern Cambodia and Vietnam and even sent envoys to China.
The collapse of Majapahit
After reaching a peak in the 14th century Majapahit kingdom was gradually weakening. There appeared to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406 between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there have been kings who fight at the turn of the year 1450s and disseminated in a large rebellion by a nobleman in the year 1468.
In Javanese tradition there is a chronogram or sounding candrasengkala ilang kretaning earth vanished. This Sengkala allegedly adl year ended Majapahit and should be read as the year 1400 Saka 0041 or 1478 AD. The meaning of this sengkala adl “gone gone prosperity earth.” However, who actually was described by adl autumn candrasengkala Kertabumi Bre’s 11th king of Majapahit by Girindrawardhana.
When the Majapahit and Muslim traders established the disseminator of religion had begun to enter the country. In the late 14th century and early 15th century Majapahit influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time a new trading empire based on Islam who is the Malacca Sultanate began to emerge in the western part of the archipelago.
Note the history of China Portuguese (Tome Pires) and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been displacement of the Majapahit kingdom in the hands of Hindu rulers into the hands of Duke Unus ruler of the Sultanate of Demak between the years 1518 and 1521 AD
Majapahit Economic System
Majapahit is an agricultural country and also the state of trade. Majapahit had their own officials to deal with traders from India and China who settled in the capital of the kingdom as well as various other places in the territory of Majapahit in Java.
According to Wang Ta-yuan, China’s export commodities traders at the moment Java is cloth and bird salt pepper old brother while imported commodities gold silver pearl silk adl ceramic goods and commodities from iron. Currency is made from a mixture of silver and tin lead and copper. Also note Odorico da Pordenone Italy’s Roman Catholic monk who visited Java in 1321 mentions that the king’s palace full Java silver and gold jewelry with precious gems.
The capital of Majapahit in Trowulan is a great and famous city with major religious celebration held each year who. Buddhism Shiva and Vaishnava (devotee of Vishnu) is embraced by residents of Majapahit and the king was regarded as the incarnation of Buddha Shiva and Vishnu.
Although the bricks have been used in temples in the days before most experts Majapahitlah architects use them. Majapahit temples of good quality utilizing geometrically with vines and sugar gum as an adhesive red brick. Examples of Majapahit temples are still found today who adl Rat Temple and Temple Bajangratu in Trowulan Mojokerto.
Majapahit Governance Structure
Majapahit has the structure and composition of the government bureaucracy who regularly during the reign of Hayam Wuruk and visible structure and the bureaucracy have not changed much during the development of its history . King is considered as the incarnation of gods in the world and he holds the highest political authority.
King assisted by a number of government officials with the bureaucracy in carrying out the king’s sons and close relatives have a high position. Ordinary king orders handed down to officers under, among others, namely:
* Rakryan Mahamantri ordinary Katrini held the king’s sons
* Ri Pakira Rakryan Mantri’s mind the council of ministers who carry out government
* Dharmmadhyaksa religious law officials
* Dharmma-upapatti religious officials
In Rakryan ri Pakira Mantri’s mind there is an official at the crux Rakryan Mapatih or Patih Hamangkubhumi. This officer can be said as a prime minister who shared the king can join implement government policy. There were also a kind of council consideration of the members of the royal relatives who addressed Bhattara Saptaprabhu king.
Under the kings of Majapahit there are some areas that the king is called liege Bhattara. They’re usually a relative or close relatives serving in the king and the royal revenue collecting tribute and submission defense in the kingdom of their respective regions. In Wingun Pitu Inscription (1447 AD) stated that the rule of Majapahit was divided into 14 regions headed by a person who subordinates who Bhre title. Subordinate areas are:
2. Red Flower
following list of rulers of Majapahit. Notice that there is a gap between administration Rajasawardhana period (ruler of the 8th) and Girishawardhana eventual succession crisis caused by the Majapahit kingdom-breaking families into two groups.
1. Raden Wijaya titled Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (1293 – 1309)
2. Sri Jayanagara Kalagamet title (1309 – 1328)
3. Sri Gitarja title Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328 – 1350)
4. Hayam Wuruk titled Sri Rajasanagara (1350 – 1389)
5. Wikramawardhana (1389 – 1429)
6. Suhita (1429 – 1447)
7. Kertawijaya titled UB I (1447 – 1451)
8. UB Rajasawardhana title II (1451 – 1453)
9. UB Purwawisesa or Girishawardhana title III (1456 – 1466)
10. UB Pandanalas or Suraprabhawa title IV (1466 – 1468)
11. Kertabumi styled Brawijaya V (1468 – 1478)
12. UB Girindrawardhana title VI (1478 – 1498)
13. UB Hudhara title VII (1498-1518)
Kingdom of Majapahit Heritage
Majapahit had become a source of inspiration past glory to the nations Nusantara on the following centuries.
Islamic sultanates of Demak and Mataram Pajang trying to obtain legitimacy for their rule through the relationship to the Majapahit. Demak claimed legitimacy of the offspring through Kertabhumi; founder, Raden Patah according to the Chronicle-Chronicle Demak kingdom Kertabhumi and expressed as a child of a Chinese woman who sent outside the palace before she gave birth. Conquest of Mataram on Wirasaba year 1615 was led by Sultan Agung directly by itself has significant meaning krn is the location of the capital of Majapahit. Kraton, the palace of Central Java has a tradition and lineage who tried to prove the relationship with the king of the Majapahit royal family often in the form of ancestral graves in Java who is considered evidence of increasing importance and legitimacy through those relationships. Bali in particular have a large influence of Majapahit and the Balinese consider themselves the true successors of Majapahit culture.
The driving force in modern Indonesian nationalism, including those who are involved in the National Revival Movement of the early 20th century has been referred to as an example of Majapahit glorious past of Indonesia. Majapahit sometimes used as a reference the political boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia today. Propaganda-operated in the 1920s the Communist Party of Indonesia convey a vision of a classless society as the embodiment of Majapahit who returned from diromantiskan. Sukarno was also raised for the interests of national unity Majapahit New Order while using the interest for the expansion and consolidation of state power. As the modern state of Indonesia Majapahit covering wide areas and politically centered on the island of Java.
Majapahit who has a real and lasting impact in the field of architecture in Indonesia. Depictions of pavilions (pavilion), various buildings in the capital of Majapahit in the book Negarakretagama been an inspiration for the architecture of the palace buildings in Java as well as temples and public housing complexes in Bali today.
On going development of the Majapahit era preservation and dissemination of the following techniques keris social functions and rituals. Kris making techniques through refinement and selection of materials becomes increasingly selective. Pre-Majapahit keris known weight but since this period and so dagger blade lightweight but strong who became a dagger quality guidelines. The use of the keris as a status symbol among the aristocracy also grew during this period and extends to various parts of the archipelago, especially in the west. In addition to developing kris also making techniques and the use of spears.
Although there is no written evidence of many martial arts college in the archipelago claim to have a root tradition to the Majapahit era. As an expansionist military regime can Majapahit who allegedly has the ability to fight LBH reliable than subordinate subordinates.
Greatness of this kingdom and various political intrigues happened at that time became a source of endless inspiration for artists for the next pour creations especially in Indonesia. Here’s a list of some works of art adl Majapahit who work associated with this period.
* Fiber Darmagandhul an obscure book writer who uses the pen name of Ki krn Kalamwadi but it is expected from the Kasunanan Surakarta. This book is about those things that change people’s beliefs associated with the Majapahit of syncretic religion “Buda” to Islam and a number of worship which need to be carried out as Muslims.
* Serial “Mahesa Rani” by Teguh Santosa at Magazine Hi laden take on the collapse of the background Singhasari until the early career Mada (Gadjah Mada), brother of a colleague Mahesa seperguruan Lubdhaka Rani.
* Comics / Stories pictorial works of the Majapahit Empire in January Mintaraga.
* Comics Majapahit works R.A. Kosasih
* Comic strip “Panji Koming” Dwi Koendoro laden works in newspapers “Compass” tells the story of the Sunday edition of the daily one resident named Panji Koming Majapahit.
* Sandyakalaning Majapahit (1933) with historical romance set during the collapse of Majapahit Sanusi Pane’s work.
* The crisis in the history of Majapahit romance with the work of setting heyday Majapahit Asmaraman S. Kho Ping Hoo.
* Age Gemilang (1938/1950/2000) roman historical narrative Singasari end of the Majapahit period and ends on the work of intrigue surrounding the murdered Jayanegara Matu Mona / Hasbullah Parinduri.
* Senopati Pamungkas (1986/2003) kungfu Singhasari collapsed with the setting up of Majapahit and the beginning of work until government Jayanagara Arswendo Atmowiloto.
* Dyah Pitaloka – Dusk at Majapahit Sky (2005) features works of Dyah Pitaloka Hermawan Aksan Citraresmi daughter of Sunda kingdom in the event Bubat deciduous.
* Gajah Mada University (2005), a novel tells the life history who glow with Gajah Mada University’s ambition to master the work of Heaven Krishna Hariadi Archipelago.
* Said Tinular a film adaptation of S. Tidjab of radio drama series. This story Singhasari background in government until the Majapahit Kertanegara Jayanagara government.
* Saur Sepuh a film adaptation of the serial works of Niki Kosasih popular radio performer who in early 1990
- Bronze Buddha Statue (onartbali.wordpress.com)
- Siddhartha Gautama (onartbali.wordpress.com)
- 5 important history of Indonesia (ireport.cnn.com)